Core Losses transformer
Since magnetic lines of force in a transformer are constantly changing in value and direction, heat is developed because of the hysteresis of the magnetic material (friction of the molecules). This heat must be removed; therefore, it represents an energy loss of the transformer. High temperatures in a transformer will drastically shorten the life of insulating materials used in the windings and structures. For every 8 degrees Celsius (°C) temperature rise, life of the transformer is cut by one-half; therefore, maintenance of cooling systems is critical. Losses of energy, which appears as heat due both to hysteresis and to eddy currents in the magnetic path, is known as core losses. Since these losses are due to alternating magnetic fields, they occur in a transformer whenever the primary is energized, even though no load is on the secondary winding.
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